Week 12

Week 12 :

Tuesday, November 13

Continuation of tree drawing.


  • Today was a work day. The ink drawings of trees will be due at the beginning of class on Thursday. You will also need to turn in your four value scales.
  • I also discussing three different artists: Salvador Dali, Edgar Degas, Henry Fuseli and Harry Carmean. Each of these artists were very intentional with how they used line in their drawings. Look closely at their drawings. Note how "line quality" can be used to create movement and areas of emphasis.

Nov 13 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 今天是一天的工作。水墨畫樹木,是由於在課堂上週四開始的。您還需要把你的四個價值尺度。
  • 我也討論三個不同的藝術家薩爾瓦多·達利,埃德加·德加,富塞利和哈里Carmean。這些藝術家是非常有意與他們在他們的繪畫用線。仔細看看他們的畫。注意對“線路質量”,可用於創建移動和重點領域。

Salvador Dali

Edgar Degas

Henry Fuseli

Harry Carmean

Thursday, November 15

Tree Drawings are due at the beginning of class.

We will be starting a new drawing today.


  • We began class with a critique of the tool drawings. We also looked at your tree drawings. Those of you who turned in your tree drawings todey will get extra credit for turning them in on time. Those of you who were not finished can turn it in on Tuesday. After Tuesday the assignment will be considered late.
  • The remainder of class was spent beginning our next assignment. If you were not in class today you can catch up on Tuesday. This is partially a group assignment so you will need to be in class to complete it.

Nov 15 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 我們開始類的工具圖紙的批評。我們也期待在樹圖。誰把樹中的圖紙todey將獲得額外的學分,他們在對的時間。你還沒說完,就可以把它在週二。在週二的分配將被視為遲到了。
  • 其餘類花一開始,我們的下一個任務。如果你今天不上課,你可以趕上週二。這部分是一組分配,所以你必須在課堂上完成。

Week 11

Week 11 :

Tuesday, November 6

We will begin work on a new project. I will provide necessary new supplies. ***DRAWING PADS DUE AT BEGINNING OF CLASS***.


  • We started class by creating four value scales using different patterns. Darker value can be created using a higher concentration of pattern elements or by changing the size of pattern elements.
  • I gave each of you a picture of trees. You made four thumbnail drawings based on one or each of the trees. We will use one of those compositions for a finished drawing on Thursday.

Nov 6 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 我們開始上課創建了四個價值尺度,採用不同的模式。較深“的值可以被創建,使用較高濃度的花紋元素或通過改變圖形元素的大小。
  • 我給你的圖片樹木。您圖紙的基礎上的樹木中的一個或每四個縮略圖。我們將使用這些組合物在週四的成品圖。

Value scales created with a variety of different patterns.

Thursday, November 8

Continuation of tree drawings.


  • Choose one of your four thumbnail compositions to make a final drawing of and enlarge it onto a piece of Bristol board.
  • Using your four value scales as a reference use a different pattern to create value on each of the four elements of your composition: tree, ground, sky, cloud. For example the shading of the tree might be achieved using a range of values created by a pattern of stars, the ground with a pattern or lines, the cloud a pattern of circles and the sky a pattern of wavy lines. So each elements rendered using one of your four value scale patterns.
  • Your final drawing must be rendered entirely in ink on Bristol Board. Use a pencil to block in your drawing but the pencil must be erased before you turn in the drawing.
  • We will work on this drawing again next Tuesday.

Nov 8 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 選擇的四個縮略圖組成,作最後的圖紙和放大到一塊上等板。
  • 使用四個價值尺度作為參考使用不同的圖案構圖的四個要素:創造價值的樹木,地面,天空,雲。例如遮光樹可能創建分,與地面的圖案或線條,雲的圓的圖案和天空的圖案的波浪線的圖案的使用的範圍內的值來實現。因此,每個元素呈現的四個價值尺度模式。
  • 你最終的圖紙必須完全呈現在墨碧董事會。使用鉛筆繪圖中的封鎖,但必須先擦除之前,請先在繪圖的鉛筆。
  • 我們將在此圖下週二。

Week 10

Week 10 :

Tuesday, October 30

****SELF PORTRAITS ARE DUE AT THE BEGINNING OF CLASS.**** We will begin a new project.


  • We looked at your self portraits. Most of them looked unfinished and not nearly as well done as your portraits of each other. I gave you all until next Tuesday to redo them before I grade them.
  • Everyone was given a tool to draw. We began by making four "thumbnail" sketches to experiment with different ideas of how to compose our drawing.
  • You chose two of your four thumbnails to enlarge on toned paper. Using "sighting" you made sure that your enlarged drawings were the same proportion as your thumbnails.
  • After you enlarged your thumbnail with pencil on toned paper, you went over the drawing with black ink and a brush. I asked you experiement with "line quality". This means experiementing with the thickness and flow of the ink line to add areas of emphasis and variety.

Oct 23 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 我們期待在您的自畫像。他們中的大多數看起來未完成的和您的肖像彼此幾乎沒有做得很好。我給你所有重做,直到下週二前I級。
  • 每個人都被賦予了工具來繪製。我們一開始就四個“縮略圖”素描實驗不同的想法如何組成我們的繪圖。
  • 你選擇了你的四個縮略圖放大色調的紙。使用“瞄準”你確定擴大圖紙相同的比例縮略圖。
  • 當你擴大你的縮略圖,你去色調的紙用鉛筆繪圖用黑色墨水和毛筆。我問你experiement的“線路質量”。這意味著experiementing添加強調和各種領域的墨線的厚度和流動。

Thursday, November 1

Today will be a work day. We will complete our ink drawings.

HOMEWORK: *** DRAWING PADS ARE DUE AT THE BEGINNING OF NEXT CLASS.***


  • Today was a workday. We completed our drawings of tools.
  • Don't forget that your drawing pads are due next Tuesday. See below for a list of the drawings that should be completed. Make sure you drawings are in order and clearly labeled before you turn your drawing pad in for grading.

Nov 1 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 今天是工作日。我們完成了圖紙的工具。
  • 不要忘了,你的圖片下週二到期。請參閱下面的列表應該完成的圖紙。確保你的圖紙,並明確標示分級之前,你把你的繪圖板。

Drawings that are due next Tuesday:

1. Copy of Sargeant's drawing of "Madame X"

2. Portrait of a partner.

3. Apples

4. Copy of portrait value study. 

5. Self Portrait

6. Big Portrait (I have these and they will be graded)

I will also be grading your sphere terminology quiz. 

Week 9

Week 9 :

Tuesday, October 23

Continuation of Discussion about perception of light and dark.


  • The fourth kind perception that we need to discuss is the perception of light and dark. Light and dark contrast is often reffered to as "value" contrast. When we refer to somethings value, we are referring to how light or dark it is.
  • Perception of value (light and dark) is how we percieve space and form. If there is no light or if everything is equally lit from all angles, we won't see space or form.
  • If we are able to see and draw values accurately we will be able to create an accurate illusion of objects in space.
  • We spent the majority of class today working in pairs to grid and enlarge a black and white portrait. This exercise is meant to emphasize the importance of seeing and translating proportions when we enlarge an image. It will also help us to simplify what we are seeing into three distinct values. This helps us to see larger shapes created by areas of similar value. We can site these shapes and use them to see proportions and relationships.

Oct 23 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 第四種看法,即我們要討論的是光明與黑暗的看法。光與暗的對比,本文稱作“價值”的對比。當我們提及到出頭的值,我們指的是亮或暗的,它是。
  • 感知價值(光明與黑暗)是,我們如何percieve空間和形式。如果沒有光,如果一切都從各個角度同樣點燃,我們將不會看到太空或形式。
  • 如果我們能夠看到並畫值準確,我們將能夠建立一個準確的物體在空間的錯覺。
  • 今天我們花費了多數類工作對電網和放大的黑白肖像。這是為了強調運動的重要性,看到和翻譯的比例,當我們放大圖像時,。它也將幫助我們簡化了我們所看到的,分為三個不同的值。這將有助於我們看到創建的形狀同等價值的領域。我們現場的形狀和使用他們看到的比例和關係。

Thursday, October 25

Continuation of large portrait drawings in groups.


  • To draw things that appear 3 dimensional we need to practice perceiving and drawing light and dark (value).
  • "Light Logic" means having consistent light and shadow relationships throughout a drawing. For example if the lighting on the nose contradicts the lighting on the hair - then the image will not make sense and will feel flat.
  • Creating light logic in our drawing by blocking in general value relationships is more important (and more difficult) than drawing accurate details. Without light logic as a foundation we will not be able to achieve a convincing illusion of form and space.
  • HOMEWORK: Finish your portraits and the copy of the drawing I handed out in class last week. It was due today but we didn't have time to talk about is so you have another weekend.
  • HOMEWORK: Bring $20 with you to class on Tuesday to pay for additional supplies.

Oct 25 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 要畫的東西出現3維的,我們需要在實踐中感知和繪畫光明與黑暗(值)。
  • “光邏輯”是指整個繪圖具有一致的光線和陰影的關係。例如,如果在鼻子上的燈光照明矛盾在頭髮上 - 然後將圖像不會使感和手感平平。
  • 在我們的繪圖創建光邏輯更重要的是通過阻斷一般價值的關係(和更加困難)比繪製準確的細節。沒有光的邏輯為基礎,我們將無法實現一個有說服力的形式和空間的錯覺。
  • 作業:完成您的肖像和複製的繪圖上週我在課堂中分發。這是今天到期,但我們沒有時間談論的是你有其他的週末。
  • 作業:將$20,你課堂上週二支付額外的供應。

Find more information about Light Logic HERE.

Week 8

Week 8 :

Tuesday, October 16

We will continue working on portrait in pairs. If you sat as a model last class you will draw this class.


  • Two of the most common and consequential proportion mistakes people make when learning to draw portraits have to do with the placement of the eyes and ears: (See last weeks summary for an illustration.)
  • 1. In profile view the distance from the back of the eyes to the back of the ear is the same as the eye level to the bottom of the chin.
  • 2. The distance from the eye level to the chin is the same as the eye leve to the top of the head. So the eye line is directly in center between the top of the head and the chin.
  • HOMEWORK: Look online to learn how to draw a sphere. Learn the different terms used to describe light and shadow. Look below for an example of a sphere and which things I want you to name. You will be quizzed on this information at the beginning of class on Thursday.

Oct 16 10月16日 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 兩個最常見的比例和相應的錯誤的人學習時畫的肖像做的眼睛和耳朵的位置(見最後幾週的說明摘要)。
  • 1。在檔案中,查看從眼睛背面的背面的耳朵的距離是相同的眼電平的底部下巴。
  • 2。從眼睛的水平到下巴的距離是相同的頭部的頂部的眼睛LEVE。所以眼睛線是直接在中心之間的頂部的頭部和下巴。
  • 作業:看網上學習如何繪製球體。學習使用不同的術語來描述光線和陰影。看看下面的一個例子,一個領域的東西,我想你的名字。在課堂上週四開始,您將被問及此信息。

What are these things?

Thursday, October 18

Today we will talk about the perception of light and dark.

QUIZ**** Come prepared to take a quiz on the four terms that you were asked to research for homework. Also come prepared to draw a sphere with light and shadow.


  • The four light-and-dark perception terms I want you to be familiar with are: 1. Hightlight 2. Core Shadow 3. Reflected light 4. Cast Shadow
  • The majority of class was spent drawing a red and green apple using the four kinds of perception we have discussed so far.
  • It is important to remember to work "general to specific" when working with value. For example it is important to first establish the relationship between the over-all value of the red apple compared to the over-all value of the green apple. See the illustration below.
  • HOMEWORK: Copy the portrait I handed out in class. Copy it upside down as we did with Picasso's drawing of Stravinsky. Start with a dark layer of graphite over your whole drawing and use an eraser to pull out the highlights.
  • HOMEWORK: Draw a self portrait from observation (NOT from a photograph). Employ all the elements of light and dark that we discussed in class and used in the apple drawings. See the illustrations below for an in depth explaination.

Oct 18 10月8日 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 四光與暗的認識方面,我希望你能熟悉的有:1。亮點2。核心暗影3。反射光4。施放暗影
  • 類的大部分都花在畫一個紅色和綠色的蘋果到目前為止,我們已經討論過的四種看法。
  • 重要的是要記住的工作“一般到特殊”工作時,值。例如,重要的是先建立過的所有價值的紅蘋果,青蘋果到過的所有價值之間的關係。請參閱下圖。
  • 作業:將人像我在課堂中分發。複製它倒過來,因為我們沒有畢加索的畫斯特拉文斯基。在你的整個圖面與暗層的石墨和用橡皮擦拉出亮點。
  • 作業:畫一張自畫像,從觀察(而不是從照片)。採用的所有元素的光明與黑暗,我們在課堂上討論,並在蘋果圖紙。為深入闡釋,請參見下面的插圖。

Perception of light and dark ("value"). These are the four terms I want you to be familiar with.

 

Drawing two apples:

Use your picture plane and smaller view finder to frame the apples into an interesting composition. Then Prepare your drawing paper with the usual layer of graphite and center lines. 

Holding your picture plane very still, use an expo marker to mark each end of your Holding your picture plane very still, use an expo marker to mark each end of your "basic unit". Transfer your basic unit to your drawing. Put away your picture plane. 

Use your basic unit as a starting point and point of reference for sighting proportions and angles. Draw in the edges of both the apples and the shadows they cast on the paper they are on.

Erase the negative space so you can see the apples more clearly and also so because the negative space in your drawing (the white paper) is white. 

Start your drawing by blocking in the over-all value of both apples, cast shadows and negative space. This is very important. You must first establish the over-all value (light and dark) relationships between the big shapes in your composition. 

Then refine each element of your drawing with highlights, core shadow, reflected light and cast shadows. The apple stems, specular (almost-white small dots) highlights, and apple skin texture should be the very last things you draw. Remember Then refine each element of your drawing with highlights, core shadow, reflected light and cast shadows. The apple stems, specular (almost-white small dots) highlights, and apple skin texture should be the very last things you draw. Remember "general to specific" you need to build the foundation of your drawing before the details will make sense. 

HOMEWORK: Draw a self portrait. Follow these basic steps. Most of these steps should be very familiar to you by now. 

1. Sit in a comfortable position in front of a mirror. The mirror should be no more than 2-3 feet (about 1 meter) away from you. Sit in a place where you have only one strong direct light source like a big window, or desk lamp. Dramatic lighting will give your features more dimension and it will be easier to see light and dark contrast.

2. Prop your drawing pad up on your lap, a table or back of a chair so it will be easy to look back and forth between the mirror and your drawing.

3. Prepare your drawing paper with the usual border, graphite layer and center lines we have been using in most of our drawings.

4. Hold your picture plane with view finder out in front of you and frame your whole face in an interesting composition. Remember to consider negative space, it should be interesting too. Make sure to include your whole head and a little bit of your shoulders so your head isn't floating. Fill the image area as much as possible with your portrait and not empty space. 

5. Holding your picture plane still and mark a basic unit. Choose a measurement that makes sense to you and will be easy to use for sighting angles and proportions. 

6. Transfer your basic unit to your drawing paper. If you drawing is larger than your view finder (as it should be) you will have to enlarge your basic unit accordingly to keep the same composition your framed with your view finder. (Email me if you still do not understand this step.)

7. Once you have established your basic unit on your drawing put your picture plane away and complete the drawing by observing yourself in the mirror. Remember the four elements we discussed in class: highlight, core shadow, reflected light, cast shadow. Also remember to establish general value relationships before you get to details.

HOMEWORK: Copy this portrait that I handed out in class. You can download and print it below if you lost your copy. Start by covering your drawing area with a dark layer of graphite and use your eraser to erase the highlights. 

Copy the drawing UPSIDE-DOWN

Download a PDF HERE.

The following is a diagram of some general facial proportions that are common to most frontal portraits. Use it as a reference and to help give you ideas of what proportions to look for in your drawing. Do not copy these proportions because each human face will have slight differences.

Download a PDF HERE.

Week 7

Week 7 :

Tuesday, October 9

Make sure you bring your drawing pad ready to be turned in at the beginning of class. All your projects should be in order. If you need to rearrange your projects make sure to tape them into your drawing pad so they are not hanging loose.


  • Drawing pads were due at the beginning of class.
  • Today we talked about how the three kinds of perception we have covered so far: edges, space and relationships apply to drawing portraits.
  • Two of the most common mistakes that people make when drawing portraits is to put the eyes too close to the top of the head and the ears too close to the eyes. See below for more information about these two proportions.
  • We spent the majority of the class copying a drawing made by Sergeant called "Madame X".

Oct 9 10月9日(Translated by Google Translate)

  • 繪圖墊是由於在剛開始上課的。
  • 今天我們談到的三種看法到目前為止,我們已經覆蓋的邊緣,空間和關係如何適用於繪製畫像。
  • 繪製畫像時,人們作出的兩種最常見的錯誤是把眼睛太靠近頭頂和耳朵太靠近眼睛。這兩個比例的更多信息,請參閱下面的。
  • 我們花費了多數類的複製畫被稱為“夫人X”的警長。

Two of the proportions (relationships) that are common to most human faces are:

1. The distance from the back of the eye to the back of the ear is the same as the distance from the eye-line to the bottom of the chin. (The bottom of the ear tends to be level with the middle of the upper lip.)

2. The eye-line or eye level is half way between the top of the head and the bottom of the chin. 

People new to portrait drawing often get these two proportions wrong. They tend to put the eyes closer to the top of the head and ears too close to the eyes. One reason for this could be that our minds tend to disregard areas where there are no important features so it minimizes the forehead and the space between the ears and eyes. Our brain doesn't see them as being significant which can affect how it interprets visual information.

Thursday, October 11

I will give you back your drawing pads today graded.


  • I demonstrated how to draw a portrait from observation.
  • For this portrait, as with the copy we made of Sargeants drawing of Madame X, we are focusing on perception of edges, (negative) space and sighting relationships.
  • We will continue working on these portraits in class on Tuesday.

Oct 11(Translated by Google Translate)

  • 我演示了如何從觀測繪製的肖像。
  • 對於這幅畫像的夫人X Sargeants畫的拷貝,我們,我們的重點是感知的邊緣,空間和瞄準的關係(負)。
  • 上週二,我們將繼續努力在課堂上這些畫像。

Week 6

Week 6 :

Tuesday, October 2


  • Today we started class with a quiz on formal perspective. I had you draw two cubes - one in one-point perspective and one in two-point perspective.
  • I demonstrated "informal perspective" which is also called "sighting".
  • Sighting is an alternative to formal perspective. It is less precise than formal perspective but more practical in most drawing situations. Usually to draw accurately using formal perspective vanishing points would extend off your drawing paper or require you to draw very small.
  • There are two kinds of sighting: sighting angles and sighting proportions. See the illustrations below for a more in depth explanation.
  • The remainder of class was spent working on a two-point perspective drawing of a building or part of a building using the sighting techniques I demonstrated.
  • We will continue working on this drawing the next class.

Oct 2 10月2日(Translated by Google Translate)

  • 今天,我們開始上課的測驗正式的角度。我有你畫兩個立方體 - 一個在單點透視,兩點透視。
  • 我演示了“非正式的角度來看”,這也被稱為“瞄準”。
  • 瞄準是另一種正式的視角。這是不是正式的角度,但不太精確,更實用的繪圖情況。通常繪製準確地使用消失點正式角度將擴大繪圖紙或要求你畫得很小。
  • 有2種瞄準:瞄準角和瞄準比例的。下面的插圖更深入的解釋。
  • 花了二點透視圖的建築物或部分的建築使用的瞄準技術,我演示了類的其餘部分。
  • 此圖的類,我們將繼續努力。

"Informal Perspective" or "Sighting"

In sighting we don't use the elements of formal perspective like horizon line, vanishing points, and converging lines. Instead we use a straight edge like a pencil to see angles and proportions more clearly. This is less precise than formal perspective but usually more useful.

Having a solid understanding of formal perspective is still very important and will help when using the sighting techniques I discuss here. Both are equally important to understand.

Buildings like this can be especially difficult to draw using formal perspective because of irregularly shaped walls and odd angles.

If we fill a sheet of paper with our drawing the vanishing points required by formal perspective would be somewhere off the paper. This is often the case and one of the reasons sighting tends to be more useful. 

Sighting helps us determine angles and proportions without having to draw in a horizon line or vanishing points. It will also make it easier to determine irregular angles of this roof line. 

1. Sighting Angles

Hold your pencil perfectly horizontal next to the edge of the building you are trying to draw. Look at the wedge shape created by your pencil and the edge. 

This is another example where the wedge is much narrower. When you go to draw that edge of the building it will be much easier to remember the shape of that wedge than to remember the exact angle of the edge. You can hold your pencil up to your drawing paper or just use the edge of the paper as a perfect horizontal.

The same technique can be used by holding the pencil perfectly vertical. Horizontal and vertical are good points of reference in drawing because you always have the edges of the paper there as a guide. 

Acute angles (angles less than 90 degrees) are easier to remember so it would be better to hold your pencil horizontally to sight the angle of this edge. 

2. Sighting Proportions

When you sight proportions it is very important to always hold your pencil at the same distance from your eyes. For this reason it is best to fully extend your arm and lock your elbow each time your sight proportions.

When we sight proportions we are comparing the lengths of various edges on the building. For this we don't need to hold the pencil perfectly horizontal or vertical rather the pencil acts as a measuring stick.

Choose an edge to start with. A medium length edge will work best. Extend your arm with your elbow locked. Hold your pencil parallel to your face (don't point it forward or backward). It should be flat on your imaginary picture plane. Use your thumb to mark the length of the edge on your pencil. 

With you thumb held in the same place compare that length with another edge on the building. In this example I see that the second edge is slightly shorter than the first. 

Still using my first measurement I see that the roof line is a little more than twice the length of my first edge. Remember the length on the pencil is not what we need to remember - it is the relationship between the edges. In this example the roof line is a little more than two times the first edge I measured. When I go to draw that the measurements might be different but the proportion (relationship) will be the same. See below for another example. 

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: Draw a piece of architecture in two-point perspective using the sighting technique explained above. I will walk you through the steps here. If you get confused email me which step you are confused about so I know what to clarify.

Find a building or part of a building (doorway, fence, bench) that is an interesting example of two-point perspective. 

Using your larger view finder and picture plane frame the building in an interesting composition. Consider the negative space too. 

Use your expo marker to mark a single edge from the building on your picture plane. This will be your basic unit. This will be the edge you use to sight proportion. 

This one line is all you should draw on your picture plane. Nothing else. 

On a piece of drawing paper trace around the outside edge of your view finder. This will be your drawing size. It is slightly bigger than the composition your found using the inside edge of the view finder so you will have to practice enlarging what you see in your drawing. 

Prepare your drawing surface with a layer of graphite and  horizontal and vertical center lines. 

Look at your picture plane and copy the basic unit line onto your drawing. 

Remember your drawing is slightly bigger than the composition you made with the view finder so your basic unit will be a little longer on your drawing than it is on the view finder. 

Use the sighting techniques I explain above to determine the angles and proportion of the edges of the building. In this picture I use my thumb to mark the length of my basic unit.

Using this measurement I determine that the wall is twice as tall as the length of my basic unit. So when I draw the wall I know it's relationship to the basic unit in my drawing. 

Here are some other examples of how my basic unit compares to other edges of the building. 

Remember your drawing is bigger than what you are looking at so you will have to take a new measurement of the basic unit on your drawing before you apply the proportion you sighted from the building.

Thursday, October 4


  • At the beginning of class we reviewed the sighting technique I demonstrated last class. We looked at the illustrations I have posted here on the website. If you have any questions about sighting or don't understand, email me which step you do not understand so I can clarify.
  • The remaining time in class was spent working on our drawings.
  • Your drawing pads are due next Tuesday. I gave you a list in class of what drawing should be in your drawing pad and what order they should be in. That list is also posted below.

Oct 4 10月4日(Translated by Google Translate)

  • 在剛開始上課的,我們回顧了我演示了最後一堂課的瞄準技術。我們看了我在這裡已經發布在網站上的插圖。如果你有任何疑問,瞄準,還是不明白,給我發電子郵件哪一步,你不明白,所以我可以澄清一下。
  • 其餘的時間在課堂上花了我們的圖紙上工作。
  • 您的繪圖墊下週二到期。我給你一個類圖應該是在你的繪圖板,他們應該是什麼樣的順序。這名單也貼在下面的列表中

Art 20A: Drawing 1 

The following projects are due next Tuesday, October 9. Please make sure all the drawing assignments are in order and clearly labeled with either the number or title listed below. 

You will turn in your whole drawing pad for grading. I will be returning them to you the following class. Please do not turn in a stack of loose papers. 

If you have any questions email me: trentreynoldssmc@gmail.com

Projects: 

  1. Upside-down drawing (copy of Picasso’s drawing of Stravinsky)
  2. Your hand
  3. Negative space drawing of a chair.
  4. Paper-cutting project
  5. Shoes
  6. Art department hallway in one-point perspective
  7. One-point perspective drawing of a room in your house
  8. Three drawings of cubes in two point perspective (above, on and below horizon line)
  9. Two point perspective drawing of a building using “informal perspective” or “sighting”
  10. EXTRA CREDIT: Two point perspective drawing of a building using “formal perspective”

Week 5

Week 5 :

Tuesday, September 25

No sketchbook assignment was given so none is due.

Bring all your usual drawing supplies and especially a ruler or straight edge.


  • Today we moved to the 3rd kind of perception we will be covering in this class: The perception of relationships.
  • We discussed linear perspective in particular.
  • The 5 key concepts to understand in linear perspective are: 1. Point of view 2. Picture plane 3. Horizon line 4. Vanishing point and 5. Converging lines.
  • Using your glass picture plane and view finder I had you go look for "one point" perspective in the hallway. See below for a more thorough explanation of how we did that.
  • Then we did a more polished drawing of the hallway using the principles of linear perspective.
  • HOMEWORK: Look up the word "paradox" and make sure you understand what it means. We talked at the beginning of class about how linear perspective is a kind of paradox. For example our mind knows parallel lines never meet, but in linear perspective they do meet at a vanishing point. So we need to draw what our eye sees and not what our intellect knows in order to make an accurate drawing of parallel lines in space.
  • HOMEWORK: Using the principles of linear perspecitve and the method illustrated below, make a detailed one-point perspective drawing of a room in your house.

Sep 25课程摘要 (Translated by Vivien)

  • 今天这节课我们将学习第三种观观察方法: 联系观察法。
  • 我们特别的讨论了线性透视。
  • 线性透视的五个关键概念: 视点,投平面,水平线,消失点,聚合线。
  • 使用你的玻璃投平面和取景器,我已经给出了你要取的走廊的“一点”。参考下面可以更清楚地告诉我们该如何做。
  • 然后使用我们线性透视的原则来对走廊进行绘图。
  • 作业:查找单词 "paradox" (“悖论”) 的含义,并确保你能清楚的理解这个单词的意义。我们已经在课上讲过了线性透视的悖论。例如,我们知道平行线是不可能交集的,但在线性透视中他们做了个消失点。所以,我们要去描绘的是我们眼睛所看到的,而不是我们理解意义上的去准确画出空间中的平行线。
  • 作业:运用我们所学的线性透视的原则和下图的引导,在你的房间取一个详细的点,画一张透视图。

You can read more about paradox HERE. You can also read more about linear perspective HERE.

Looking down a hallway like this the majority of horizontal lines that are receding into space are parallel to each other. All these parallel lines will be pointing toward the same vanishing point. When a drawing only has one vanishing point it is called Looking down a hallway like this the majority of horizontal lines that are receding into space are parallel to each other. All these parallel lines will be pointing toward the same vanishing point. When a drawing only has one vanishing point it is called "one point" perspective.

First we must determine where the horizon line is. In this image I can not see the horizon because the wall is in the way and probably trees behind it. The horizon line is ALWAYS the same as my eye level so I can determine the horizon line by finding my eye level. In this example I know my eye level is a little below the top of the wall at the end of the hallway. I found that out by walking up to the wall. You can think of many ways to determine where you eye level is. 

Next choose one of the horizontal lines that you see receding into space. If you follow that line it will eventually cross your horizon line. This is your vanishing point. ALL other horizontal lines that are parallel to the line you found the vanishing point with will lead at the same vanishing point.

Here I have shown you many, but not all, of the lines I see that run parallel to the first line I drew. Notice how all of these lines lead to the same vanishing point. If the line is above the horizon line the line with angle down. If it is below the horizon line it will angle up. If a horizontal sits at the same height as my horizon line it will be... horizontal.

If you see a horizontal line in your image that is NOT going away from you into space then it will remain completely horizontal. Also if you see any vertical lines  they will remain completely vertical.

Here are the perspective lines without the image. Look back and forth at the two so you can see how dramatically these Here are the perspective lines without the image. Look back and forth at the two so you can see how dramatically these "horizontal" lines angle up and down - some are almost vertical. This is the apparent paradox we addressed today: to represent horizontal lines as we see them, we must draw them at angles that can be nearly vertical.

Remember that the horizon line can be located anywhere in your composition. No matter where you choose to put it though, it ALWAYS represents your eye level. So if you want to draw more sky put your horizon line lower on the page. If you want more of the ground put your horizon line at the top. Everything above the horizon line is above your eye level, everything below it is below your eye level. Many students feel like they have to put the horizon line in the middle of the page but you don't. See below for some examples of horizon lines that are not in the center of the composition.

Horizon at the top of the composition above the kids hat.

Again at the top. Notice that our (the viewer) eye level is the same as the person in the photo, so his eyes sit right on the horizon. The photographer was probably the same height as the man in the picture. 

The horizon line here is in the middle between mountains and lake. The viewers eye level here is probably a little above the waterline in the distance at about the red bushes.

Also close to the middle of the picture.

Horizon line at the bottom of the image.

Horizon line at the bottom here too. In this one it is perhaps easier to think in terms of eye-level like the mountain picture above. What are you looking down at? What are you looking up at? What are you looking neither up or down at? - The last answer is your horizon line. I'd say right at the top edge of the water.

 

Thursday, September 27

Bring all your usual drawing supplies and especially a ruler or straight edge.


  • Today we continued our discussion about linear perspective. I demonstrated how to construct a three dimensional box using one-point and two-point perspect. See the videos below to repeat the demonstration.
  • In one-point perspective there is only one vanishing point. In two-point perspective there is two vanishing points. There can be many vanishing points in an image but these are the two basic types of linear perspective we will cover.
  • Remember the 5 key concepts to understand in linear perspective are: 1. Point of view 2. Picture plane 3. Horizon line 4. Vanishing point and 5. Converging lines.
  • The horizon line is the same as your eye level. We discussed several ways you can determine the horizon line in an image.
  • HOMEWORK: Complete your one-point perspective drawing of a room in your house. Make sure it is one-point perspective. If you are not sure, see the examples below.

案由 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 今天,我們繼續我們的討論線性透視。我演示了如何構建一個三維框,使用單點和兩點透視。請參閱下面的視頻,重複示範。
  • 在單點透視只有一個消失點。在兩點透視有兩個消失點。可以有許多圖像中的消失點,但這些都是線性透視,我們將介紹兩種基本類型。
  • 記住5個關鍵概念的理解線性透視:1。點來看,2。圖像平面3。天際線4條。消失點和5。會聚線。
  • 你的眼睛水平的天際線是一樣的。我們討論了幾種方法可以判斷圖像的水平線。
  • 作業:完成您的單點透視圖的一個房間,你的房子。請確保它是單點透視。如果你不知道,看下面的例子。

Demonstration: one point perspective.

Demonstration: two point perspective.

Three ways to determine the horizon line when you can't see the horizon.

1. Walk up to the building and measure where your eyes are in relation to the height of the building. Remember your eye level is always the same as the horizon line. If you can not get close to the building use a railing or doorway as a point of reference to make an approximation of where your eye level is in relation to the building.   2. Follow the line of the top edge of the building and then the line of the bottom edge of the building as they recede into space. The point at which these two lines converge is a vanishing point. All vanishing points reside on the horizon line so now you know where the horizon line is too. 

3. All horizontal lines that are receding into space will angle down if they are above the horizon line. They will angle up if they are below the horizon line. When they angle neither up nor down they are sitting directly on the horizon line - the viewers eye level. Notice in this picture that the flat line lines up with all the buildings on both streets. This is because the buildings are all aligned and will have the same vanishing points and horizon line.

HOMEWORK: Draw a room in your house using one point perspective. Look at the images below for one good and one bad example of the point of view you would want to use for your homework.

BAD CHOICE. You can see that the far wall is not parallel with the picture plane (your eyes) so the top and bottom edge of the wall are receding into space and therefore heading toward a vanishing point off to the right that is not the same as the vanishing point the side walls, roof and floor are pointing at. So this would be a two point perspective drawing. That is not the assignment.

GOOD CHOICE. In this image the back wall is parallel to the picture place (your eyes) so none of it's edges are receding into space. This means we only have the vanishing point the side wall, roof and floor are pointing at. This would be a one point perspective drawing. 

Week 4

Week 4 :

Tuesday, September 18

BRING A #2 XACTO KNIFE WITH YOU TO CLASS. Everyone will need their own - no sharing.

If you do not bring your own Xacto knife to class I will subtract 25 points from your next project grade. Email me if you have problems finding or buying one.


  • Today we continued our discussion about the perception of space - specifically negative space.
  • Using our image plane and small view finder, we went outside and found examples of interesting negative space.
  • We composed the negative space in our view finder in an interesting way and traced it using an Expo marker.
  • Then we transferred the negative space drawing to a piece of bond paper and used a pencil to solidify our the negative shapes in our composition (many people got confused and added lines from the "positive" space of the object they were drawing around).
  • Once we had identified all our negative shapes we transfered the drawing to our drawing pad and cut the negative shapes out of the paper using an Xacto knife. To avoid damaging the rest of the paper in our drawing pad, we put a stack of bond paper under the area we were cutting.
  • Finally we took a piece of brown paper and put it behind our cut-out composition so we could see the holes of our composition more clearly.
  • We did two different cut-out negative space drawings in our drawing pad in class.

課程概要: (Translated by Hannah)

  • 今天我們繼續了空間認知-特別是負空間的討論。
  • 我們走出了教室,用圖板和小觀景器找尋有趣的負空間例子。
  • 我們把觀景器內的負空間排成有趣的構圖,並把它用白板水筆勾勒出來。
  • 然後我們把圖板畫出的負空間畫到一張電腦白紙上,並用鉛筆加深且鞏固於構圖內負空間的形狀。(很多人搞湖塗了,在正空間內也畫上線條)
  • 當我們都肯定了所有的負空間形狀,就把它轉移到畫簿上,然後用xacto knife把負空間形狀都割出 來。別忘了在切割範圉下墊著一些白紙,以免割到了其他的畫紙。
  • 最後我們在割好的構圖下墊上一塊楬色的紙,以突出構圖上的洞。
  • 我們在課上要在畫簿裡做好了兩個不同的負空間切割圖。

Take a look at the following video. The drawing technique isn't particularly good, but it is a good example of negative space drawing. Their still-life setup has a lot of interesting negative space which helps.

Thursday, September 20

Continuation of Edges and Space. Bring all your drawing supplies.


  • We did a drawing of our shoes.
  • Using the view finder and pictures plane we first found a composition that had interesting negative shapes.
  • After drawing the negative shapes on our picture plane we filled in all the contour lines of the shoes on the picture plane.
  • Finally we transferred the drawing on the picture plane to our drawing pad, which was prepared with a graphite layer and the horizontal and vertical lines.
  • PRINCIPLE: when you compose a drawing it is important to consider the negative shapes that surround whatever object we are drawing. Interesting negative shapes are an important part of a successful drawing.

案由 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 我們做了一個圖,我們的鞋。
  • 使用取景器和圖片的平面,我們首先發現組成,有趣負的形狀。
  • 在我們的畫面上繪製的負面形狀後,我們的鞋子在所有的輪廓線填充的圖像平面上。
  • 最後,我們轉到圖中的圖像平面上,我們的拉伸墊,製備與石墨層和所述的水平和垂直的線條。
  • 工作原理:當您撰寫繪圖重要的是要考慮其消極的形狀,環繞我們正在繪製的對象。有趣的的負形狀是一個重要組成部分,一個成功的圖。

In this composition the shoes are placed directly in the center creating fairly symmetrical negative space surrounding the shoes. The shoes are interesting to look at but the negative space is not. 

Here the shoes occupy more of the composition and start to divide up the negative space in more interesting and asymmetrical ways. The top and bottom spaces have no dividing line but the left shoe comes close to the left edge of the format which does create more of a division between the areas. 

In this composition the negative space is divided into four distinct shapes: two small, one medium and one large. There is nice variety in these negative shapes, which will make it more interesting to look at. 

You could also choose to do a horizontal composition. Similar to the first illustration above this composition places the shoes directly in the center at the same distance from each edge. This sameness is not the most interesting option. The negative space is also not separated into distinct or implied areas, it's just one big empty space. This also tends to not be a good compositional decision. 

Bringing the edge of the shoe closer to the edge helps to start dividing the negative space into more distinct areas, creating more interesting shapes.

Here is another configuration. Sometimes cropping is awkward. Even if it makes more interesting negative space, we also need to consider how the positive space looks.

Week 3

Week 3 :

Tuesday, September 11

Turn in your sketchbook assignment: both the source image and your copy. Bring the drawing we started in class last Thursday.

Make sure you have ALL of your supplies.


Thursday, September 13

Come prepared with ALL your drawing supplies including an Expo Marker, both your view finders and your glass image plane.


  • Today we talked about the second kind of perception: Space. We focused on "negative" space which is everyone around the subject of our drawing.
  • All of the negative space in a drawing shares edges with the positive space (subject of our drawing). This means that if we draw the negative space we will also be drawing the positive space. This can be a very effective way to trick our brain into drawing what our eyes are seeing instead of what our intellect tells us what to draw.
  • We discussed beginning a drawing by deciding on a "basic unit". This can be a single positive or negative shape in your chosen composition or it can just be a specific edge in your composition. It should be a mid-sized shape or egde because we will be using it as a point of comparison for the rest of the drawing.
  • We begin our drawing with our basic unit, that way we can be sure that we will be able to fit all our of our subject into our drawing.
  • See below for a step by step guide for this process.
  • HOMEWORK: Choose an interesting chair in your house and complete a negative space drawing like the one we did in class today. Use bond paper and turn it in on Tuesday.
  • HOMEWORK: Buy an xacto knife with replacement blades and brind it with you to class on Tuesday. See below for what it looks like.

HOMEWORK: Follow the steps below to make a negative space drawing of an interesting chair in your house.

1. Clip your large view finder onto your picture plane.

2. Use your expo marker to draw along the inside of your view finder. 

3. Use your view finder to frame an interesting composition with your chair. Try to fill as much of the frame as possible so you can see the negative shapes created between the chair edges and the edges of your composition. Close one eye so your can see the composition more clearly. 

4. Once you have chosen an interesting composition choose one negative shape to be your 4. Once you have chosen an interesting composition choose one negative shape to be your "basic unit". It should be a medium sized shape.

5. You should now have your basic unit and the inside edge of your view finder drawn on your picture plane. Nothing else.

6. On your drawing pad use a pencil to draw a line around the OUTER edge of your view finder. This shape should have the same proportions as the inner edge of the view finder, so it will be easy to enlarge your drawing a little.

7. Tone the rectangle you just drew with your graphite stick and blend it into an even grey layer with a paper towel.

8. First draw your vertical and horizontal lines with you pencil and then copy the 8. First draw your vertical and horizontal lines with you pencil and then copy the "basic unit" that you have drawn on your picture plane to the exact same location on your drawing. Remember your drawing area is a little larger than the composition your have within your view finder, so you will have to make your "basic unit" a little larger so it is the same proportion in relation to the image area as it is on your glass picture plane.

9. Put your glass picture plane away. Finish drawing all the negative shapes your see in and around your chair. Use your 9. Put your glass picture plane away. Finish drawing all the negative shapes your see in and around your chair. Use your "basic unit" as a point of comparison for the remaining negative shapes. If you drew the basic unit accurately your composition should end up matching the composition your originally chose using the view finder. IMPORTANT: remember the outer edge of your composition is also the edge of the negative shape(s) that surround the chair. 

10. Erase either the negative or positive shapes so you can see them more clearly. You can also refine the drawing with some details if you would like. Turn this drawing in to me on Tuesday.

HOMEWORK: Buy a #2 Xacto knife with replacement blades and bring it with you to class next week. I will be subtracting 25 points from your next project grade if you do not bring this with you to class. You need your own - no sharing. 

The replacement blades should look something like this. They usually come in a 5 pack. MAKE SURE YOU GET THE CORRECT BLADES FOR YOUR KNIFE! (i don't know if this picture is of the correct blades.)

Week 2

Week 2 :

Tuesday, September 4

Bring your three drawings: 1. Portrait from memory 2. Self portrait 3. Your hand


  • There are two forces at work in our brain that we need to be aware of: 1. Intellect 2. Perception.
  • Our intellect takes all the information from our senses and makes meaning, symbols, language, models, understanding, logic etc.
  • Perception is the information and sensations that come to us from the world through our senses. This information doesn't necessarily have to make sense or have meaning.
  • When drawing from observation we need to learn how to let perception (visual perception in this case) tell us what marks to make on the paper. The problem is our intellect can be very dominant and will try to take over. It will try to tell us, "that is a nose and this is how you draw a nose" even if the nose we are looking at doesn't match the symbol of a nose that our intellect gives to us.
  • In this class our strategy will be to try and trick our intellect into thinking that it doesn't understand what we are asking it to do, so it will let our perception take over and show us what do draw.
  • Drawing something upside down is one way we can trick our intellect. I saw in class today that most of you were able to successfuly copy a very complicated drawing using this technique. So we are headed in the right direction.

You can download a PDF of this image HERE.

Make sure you bring an expo-marker with you to class on Thursday. Any non-permananent fine-tipped black pen will work. The kind you use on a white dry-erase board. You will also need to bring your 8" x 10" piece of glass or plastic,  your black view-finders (already cut out), your black clips and the rest of your usual drawing supplies.

Many of you didn't have bond (computer) paper with you today - you should always have a small stack of bond paper with you in class.

Thursday, September 6

Bring all your drawing supplies with you to class (including a stack of bond paper).

Make sure you have your glass or plexi-glass ("picture-plane") marked with a line down the vertical center and another line down the horizontal center in permanent black marker.

Cut out your view-finders before you get to class. The instructions for cutting the view finder are posted above.


  • Perception of edges. Edges are where two things come together. This shared edge is called a "contour" line.
  • In class we did a "blind contour" drawing of the wrinkles in our hand. In a blind contour drawing you only look at the object you are drawing and never at the drawing you are making. This exercise helps us to focus on letting our eyes tell us what marks to make and not our memory or intellect.
  • A "picture plane" is both a physical object like our piece of glass and a mental construct. In this class we use the piece of glass to help our mind understand what it is supposed to be doing - flattening space onto a two dimensional plane. This is just a temporary tool to help us learn. Eventually we will be able to draw from our mental "picture plan".
  • We used our non-permanent black marker to make a contour drawing of our hand that was sitting behind the glass. We closed one eye to help us see from only one perspective.
  • After using our graphite to tone the paper, measuring our the bounding box and marking the horizontal and verticle center lines we copied the contour drawing we did on the glass to our drawing paper.
  • We will continue this drawing and our discussion about edges next Tuesday, so bring the drawing we started in class today with you on Tuesday. (along with ALL your other supplies).
  • HOMEWORK: choose one of the line drawings below or find a similar one online and print it out. Make an exact copy of this drawing upside-down just like we did with the Picasso drawing in class. Make sure your sourcs drawing is around 8.5 x 11 inches. You will turn in BOTH your source image and your copy to me on Tuesday.

SKETCHBOOK ASSIGNMENT: Choose one of the following images or find a similar 8.5 x 11 inch line drawing online. Print it out and draw an exact copy upside-down like we did with the Picasso drawing in class. Turn in both the printout and your drawing to me next Tuesday. 

Download PDF

Download PDF

Download PDF

Download PDF

Download PDF

Download PDF

Week 1

Week 1 :

Tuesday, August 28

Introductions, Materials list, Course outline and rules.


  • Go and pick up all the supplies on the materials list. If you go to Blick on Santa Monica Blvd. tell them you are in my class. They have all the materials collected for you and will give you a 25% discount (should be around $37). They are all very common supplies so you can buy them at any other art supply store too.
  • I will be posting links and information here each week to summarize and supplement what we talk about in class.
  • Most people in our class come from countries where English is not the primary language. Make sure to tell me if you do not understand something I say. Also sit next to people who speak your native language so you can help each other.

8" x 10" piece of glass. This is the one thing on the materials list that might be difficult to find. If you can't find them at an art supply store (in the framing section most likely) you should be able to get them at a framing store. It is important that you get a piece of glass that is exactly 8 inches by 10 inches. Come talk to me if you aren't able to find this.

Learning to draw is really a matter of learning to see—to see correctly—and that means a good deal more than merely looking with the eye.

— —Kimon Nicolaides, The Natural Way to Draw, 1941

Thursday, August 30

Bring all your materials to class and be ready to start drawing.


  • Drawing is a skill that can be developed by any average human being.
  • Learning to draw requires that we learn how to supress our strong tendancy to rely on our intellectual and symbolic understanding of the world. Many of the projects we do in this class will help you learn to rely on visual perception instead of intellectual understanding while you are drawing.
  • There are 5 areas of visual perception that we will discuss in class: 1. Perception of edges 2. Perception of space 3. Perception of Relationships 4. Perception of Light and Dark ("value") 4. Perception of Gestalt.
  • HOMEWORK: Cut out two view finders from your black construction paper as described below.
  • HOMEWORK: Draw a self portrait using a mirror on a 8.5" x 11" piece of bond paper. Bring it to class along with your other two drawings on Tuesday.
  • HOMEWORK: Make sure you have all your supplies with you on Tuesday.

Download a PDF of the view finder instructions HERE.