Week 5

Week 5 :

Tuesday, September 25

No sketchbook assignment was given so none is due.

Bring all your usual drawing supplies and especially a ruler or straight edge.


  • Today we moved to the 3rd kind of perception we will be covering in this class: The perception of relationships.
  • We discussed linear perspective in particular.
  • The 5 key concepts to understand in linear perspective are: 1. Point of view 2. Picture plane 3. Horizon line 4. Vanishing point and 5. Converging lines.
  • Using your glass picture plane and view finder I had you go look for "one point" perspective in the hallway. See below for a more thorough explanation of how we did that.
  • Then we did a more polished drawing of the hallway using the principles of linear perspective.
  • HOMEWORK: Look up the word "paradox" and make sure you understand what it means. We talked at the beginning of class about how linear perspective is a kind of paradox. For example our mind knows parallel lines never meet, but in linear perspective they do meet at a vanishing point. So we need to draw what our eye sees and not what our intellect knows in order to make an accurate drawing of parallel lines in space.
  • HOMEWORK: Using the principles of linear perspecitve and the method illustrated below, make a detailed one-point perspective drawing of a room in your house.

Sep 25课程摘要 (Translated by Vivien)

  • 今天这节课我们将学习第三种观观察方法: 联系观察法。
  • 我们特别的讨论了线性透视。
  • 线性透视的五个关键概念: 视点,投平面,水平线,消失点,聚合线。
  • 使用你的玻璃投平面和取景器,我已经给出了你要取的走廊的“一点”。参考下面可以更清楚地告诉我们该如何做。
  • 然后使用我们线性透视的原则来对走廊进行绘图。
  • 作业:查找单词 "paradox" (“悖论”) 的含义,并确保你能清楚的理解这个单词的意义。我们已经在课上讲过了线性透视的悖论。例如,我们知道平行线是不可能交集的,但在线性透视中他们做了个消失点。所以,我们要去描绘的是我们眼睛所看到的,而不是我们理解意义上的去准确画出空间中的平行线。
  • 作业:运用我们所学的线性透视的原则和下图的引导,在你的房间取一个详细的点,画一张透视图。

You can read more about paradox HERE. You can also read more about linear perspective HERE.

Looking down a hallway like this the majority of horizontal lines that are receding into space are parallel to each other. All these parallel lines will be pointing toward the same vanishing point. When a drawing only has one vanishing point it is called Looking down a hallway like this the majority of horizontal lines that are receding into space are parallel to each other. All these parallel lines will be pointing toward the same vanishing point. When a drawing only has one vanishing point it is called "one point" perspective.

First we must determine where the horizon line is. In this image I can not see the horizon because the wall is in the way and probably trees behind it. The horizon line is ALWAYS the same as my eye level so I can determine the horizon line by finding my eye level. In this example I know my eye level is a little below the top of the wall at the end of the hallway. I found that out by walking up to the wall. You can think of many ways to determine where you eye level is. 

Next choose one of the horizontal lines that you see receding into space. If you follow that line it will eventually cross your horizon line. This is your vanishing point. ALL other horizontal lines that are parallel to the line you found the vanishing point with will lead at the same vanishing point.

Here I have shown you many, but not all, of the lines I see that run parallel to the first line I drew. Notice how all of these lines lead to the same vanishing point. If the line is above the horizon line the line with angle down. If it is below the horizon line it will angle up. If a horizontal sits at the same height as my horizon line it will be... horizontal.

If you see a horizontal line in your image that is NOT going away from you into space then it will remain completely horizontal. Also if you see any vertical lines  they will remain completely vertical.

Here are the perspective lines without the image. Look back and forth at the two so you can see how dramatically these Here are the perspective lines without the image. Look back and forth at the two so you can see how dramatically these "horizontal" lines angle up and down - some are almost vertical. This is the apparent paradox we addressed today: to represent horizontal lines as we see them, we must draw them at angles that can be nearly vertical.

Remember that the horizon line can be located anywhere in your composition. No matter where you choose to put it though, it ALWAYS represents your eye level. So if you want to draw more sky put your horizon line lower on the page. If you want more of the ground put your horizon line at the top. Everything above the horizon line is above your eye level, everything below it is below your eye level. Many students feel like they have to put the horizon line in the middle of the page but you don't. See below for some examples of horizon lines that are not in the center of the composition.

Horizon at the top of the composition above the kids hat.

Again at the top. Notice that our (the viewer) eye level is the same as the person in the photo, so his eyes sit right on the horizon. The photographer was probably the same height as the man in the picture. 

The horizon line here is in the middle between mountains and lake. The viewers eye level here is probably a little above the waterline in the distance at about the red bushes.

Also close to the middle of the picture.

Horizon line at the bottom of the image.

Horizon line at the bottom here too. In this one it is perhaps easier to think in terms of eye-level like the mountain picture above. What are you looking down at? What are you looking up at? What are you looking neither up or down at? - The last answer is your horizon line. I'd say right at the top edge of the water.

 

Thursday, September 27

Bring all your usual drawing supplies and especially a ruler or straight edge.


  • Today we continued our discussion about linear perspective. I demonstrated how to construct a three dimensional box using one-point and two-point perspect. See the videos below to repeat the demonstration.
  • In one-point perspective there is only one vanishing point. In two-point perspective there is two vanishing points. There can be many vanishing points in an image but these are the two basic types of linear perspective we will cover.
  • Remember the 5 key concepts to understand in linear perspective are: 1. Point of view 2. Picture plane 3. Horizon line 4. Vanishing point and 5. Converging lines.
  • The horizon line is the same as your eye level. We discussed several ways you can determine the horizon line in an image.
  • HOMEWORK: Complete your one-point perspective drawing of a room in your house. Make sure it is one-point perspective. If you are not sure, see the examples below.

案由 (Translated by Google Translate)

  • 今天,我們繼續我們的討論線性透視。我演示了如何構建一個三維框,使用單點和兩點透視。請參閱下面的視頻,重複示範。
  • 在單點透視只有一個消失點。在兩點透視有兩個消失點。可以有許多圖像中的消失點,但這些都是線性透視,我們將介紹兩種基本類型。
  • 記住5個關鍵概念的理解線性透視:1。點來看,2。圖像平面3。天際線4條。消失點和5。會聚線。
  • 你的眼睛水平的天際線是一樣的。我們討論了幾種方法可以判斷圖像的水平線。
  • 作業:完成您的單點透視圖的一個房間,你的房子。請確保它是單點透視。如果你不知道,看下面的例子。

Demonstration: one point perspective.

Demonstration: two point perspective.

Three ways to determine the horizon line when you can't see the horizon.

1. Walk up to the building and measure where your eyes are in relation to the height of the building. Remember your eye level is always the same as the horizon line. If you can not get close to the building use a railing or doorway as a point of reference to make an approximation of where your eye level is in relation to the building.   2. Follow the line of the top edge of the building and then the line of the bottom edge of the building as they recede into space. The point at which these two lines converge is a vanishing point. All vanishing points reside on the horizon line so now you know where the horizon line is too. 

3. All horizontal lines that are receding into space will angle down if they are above the horizon line. They will angle up if they are below the horizon line. When they angle neither up nor down they are sitting directly on the horizon line - the viewers eye level. Notice in this picture that the flat line lines up with all the buildings on both streets. This is because the buildings are all aligned and will have the same vanishing points and horizon line.

HOMEWORK: Draw a room in your house using one point perspective. Look at the images below for one good and one bad example of the point of view you would want to use for your homework.

BAD CHOICE. You can see that the far wall is not parallel with the picture plane (your eyes) so the top and bottom edge of the wall are receding into space and therefore heading toward a vanishing point off to the right that is not the same as the vanishing point the side walls, roof and floor are pointing at. So this would be a two point perspective drawing. That is not the assignment.

GOOD CHOICE. In this image the back wall is parallel to the picture place (your eyes) so none of it's edges are receding into space. This means we only have the vanishing point the side wall, roof and floor are pointing at. This would be a one point perspective drawing.